Impact of The COVID-19 Border Closures on Global Freight Movement

Impact of The COVID-19 Border Closures on Global Freight Movement

Executive Summary

  • The evolving nature of the COVID-19 crisis has triggered governments from around the world to adopt nationwide border closures that have impacted ground, air, and ocean freight transport and logistics operations.
  • While many border regions across Europe saw rising waiting times at border check points last week due to additional health and safety checks, this has since eased and border waiting times are at a minimal currently. Over recent weeks, truck driving bans have taken place, both in and out of the Schengen area, most notably in Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, and Slovakia.
  • In North America, the U.S., Canada, and Mexico were all proactive in closing their respective borders to non-essential traffic without restricting bilateral trade and essential services. However, as of last count, up to 25 U.S. states have ordered non-essential businesses to close and imposed state-wide curfews and shelter-in-place advisories that could impede ground freight delivery schedules.
  • In the Asia-Pacific region, India, Malaysia, and the Philippines have taken drastic measures through mass quarantine and lockdown directives that have resulted in non-essential activities being halted in a bid to curb the COVID-19 outbreak. 
  • Due to its geographical location and centrality to Eurasian trade networks, the Middle East is uniquely at risk of the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Almost all countries in the region have closed or partially closed their borders with Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, and Egypt implementing complete border closures.
  • As more countries implement lockdown measures and border controls, a slowdown of cargo movement can be expected. While restrictions on cargo movement has been largely exempted from the lockdowns, the availability of personnel that is needed to keep moving goods and the ban on specific nationalities may limit the ability of truckers to conduct cross-border movements. 

Background

The implications of the global outbreak of COVID-19 have led governments from around the world to enact border closures that threaten to pose serious disruptions to ground, air, and ocean logistics. 

For ground freight, the imposition of land border closures has resulted in severe delays and elevated waiting times with delivery times of shipments being impacted, although the flow of goods has largely remained unaffected. Limited international air freight capacity continues to pose challenges amid soaring rates, mass airline cancellations, and government-mandated airport closures. Vessels from affected hotspots have also been prohibited from accessing key shipping routes, while some major seaports of entry have either closed or been forced to operate at decreased capacity due to growing worker absences linked to concerns over safe working conditions.

This report aims to provide an overview of the measures being implemented worldwide to stymie the COVID-19 outbreak and their impact on cargo delivery. As of this writing, 116 countries worldwide have adopted some form of border closure. A full list is available at the end of this report as Appendix A. As the worldwide response to the COVID-19 crisis continues to evolve, supply chain professionals will need to be proactive in mitigating the unprecedented challenges posed by global border closures. 

Europe

Figure 01: Border Restrictions Across Europe Due to COVID-19. Source: Everstream Analytics

When the outbreak began in early 2020, China remained the most affected country for weeks. However, as COVID-19 continues to spread across the world, the World Health Organization now considers Europe the epicenter of the global outbreak. As COVID-19 began to spread across Europe in February, national governments have taken increasingly restrictive measures to curb the outbreak. 

Initially, countries such as Austria, Estonia, Slovenia, and Belgium began enforcing additional health and safety checks at border crossings. While this led to increasing waiting times of up to 60 km on the Polish-Lithuanian border, 48 hours’ worth of delays on the Brenner Pass between Austria and Italy, and 72 hours’ worth of delays on Slovenia’s borders, it did not stop cargo from moving across the continent completely. 

However, several governments in Eastern and Southern Europe have since started to impose mandatory 14-day quarantines or ban the entry of drivers of certain nationalities, which is likely to significantly curtail cargo movement in these areas. 

Around March 17, Croatia began to require that truck drivers from Italy, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Austria, UK, the Netherland, and Sweden be quarantined, and imposed measures to prevent anyone having visited high-impact areas (namely China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Italy, and Heinsberg in Germany) in the last 14 days from entering the country. As of March 25, foreign truck drivers are allowed to enter if they can provide a receipt and signature confirming health and safety requirements, and that they adhere to their obligation of limited contact with people. 

Serbia has imposed similar restrictions on truck drivers from Italy, Switzerland, Romania, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and Greece. The Slovenian government has completely prohibited trucks from Italy from transiting through the country until further notice, while Turkey has banned all but Turkish truck drivers, who will be subject to a 14-day quarantine upon their return.

Aside from the entry restrictions, Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia have severely limited the routes trucks are allowed to use while transiting via their territory. Croatia designated specific crossing points for transit trucks to and from Hungary, Bosnia, Slovenia, and Croatia which are convoyed by the road police to ensure compliance. In Slovenia, road police irregularly organizes convoys for groups of trucks to transit without stops, while Serbian road police convoy trucks across the territory to ensure transit within 12 hours.

Information obtained by Everstream Analytics suggests that traffic congestion at border crossings has eased and cargo is moving at normal speed in most border areas as of March 26. Nevertheless, border delays and waiting times are anticipated to continue to cause the most notable short-term disruptions, given the persistence of border controls across the Schengen zone, as well as enhanced screening measures across the continent. Any continued compounding of waiting is likely to increase not only the cost of freight, but also labor costs as a trucker shortage is anticipated in the coming days, particularly at the Turkish border, primarily due to the elevated probability of truckers, regardless of travel history, requiring a 14-day isolation period precluding them from work.

Finally, general, non-cargo specific entry restrictions have been reported in Spain, Lithuania, Germany, Denmark, Denmark, Switzerland, Russia, Uzbekistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, and for the outer borders of the EU. Due to the adjustments made as a result of the restrictions, as well as subsequent trucker shortages for those stricken with COVID-19, road shipping capacity shortages are anticipated to rise. 

In addition to these road-related restrictions, several governments began restricting entry to their countries via sea- and airport. As of March 24, all airports in Serbia and Slovakia, as well as Skopje International Airport in North Macedonia’s capital, are closed. Norway and Spain have also restricted access via their seaports, in addition to entry restrictions at airports, to curb the spread of COVID-19. 

Americas

In North America, the U.S., Canada, and Mexico were proactive in adopting border restrictions with all countries agreeing to close their respective borders to non-essential traffic but allowing for the transportation of goods and travel for work in order to mitigate the impact on trade and supply chains.   

On March 21, Canada closed its border with the U.S. to all non-essential travel with trucks and trains carrying goods exempted from the new measures. On March 20, Mexico and the U.S. similarly agreed to temporarily close its borders to non-essential travel but allow trade and commerce to continue uninterrupted.   

While no official sub-federal border closures have been issued thus far, 25 major U.S. states as of this writing – including New York, Illinois, Massachusetts, Florida, and Ohio – have either ordered all non-essential businesses to be shut down or announced shelter-in-place lockdown advisories. In Canada, non-essential businesses were also ordered to close in Ontario and Quebec, with both provinces imposing restrictions for two and three weeks respectively. In addition, truckers face delivery challenges with some states – most notably New Jersey – imposing curfews on non-essential, non-emergency travel between 08:00 and 17:00 local time in a move that could present more difficulties if widespread closure of distribution centers, warehouses, and factories across North America were to follow. 

As COVID-19 began to manifest in South America, Chile and Peru took the lead on March 16 in announcing border closures of land, sea, and air for often limited periods, sometimes 14 days. Some have gone beyond in terms of prohibition, like Ecuador, which closed its borders in their entirety for a similar period. 

For larger countries in the region, the land border closures would be incremental, like that of Brazil, starting with its land border with Venezuela on March 17, then proceeding to the rest of its neighbors except Uruguay throughout the week. Similar measures were reported in Central America, starting with Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, the latter of which notably closed Archbishop Romero International Airport to all but cargo traffic, a notable development also present in South America. A full list of the closures can be found in Appendix A.

Asia-Pacific

As the COVID-19 outbreak spreads throughout the region, Asian governments have taken a similar approach with India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Australia leading the way in deploying severe government-mandated lockdown measures. 

On March 25, the Indian government imposed a nationwide lockdown from midnight for 21 days with exemptions being granted for the delivery of all essential goods including food, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment through e-commerce. The developments come after 80 districts including the major states of Maharashtra (Mumbai), Delhi and the National Capital Region, Tamil Nadu (Chennai), Karnataka (Bangalore), Kerala (Cochin), Punjab, and Haryana were shut down as non-essential businesses were ordered to remain closed until March 31. Integrated checkpoints (ICPs) at all airports, seaports, land ports, rail ports, and river ports are closed, although vehicles and trains carrying essential goods and supplies will be exempted. The government ordered commercial airlines to shut down domestic operations from March 24, 00:00, local time. 

Road movements in India have been severely impeded due to the lack of available drivers and respective state restrictions. Inter-state borders within India are being monitored, but the movement of essential goods (such as life sciences and food products) is allowed, though subject to permission from state police. Trucks have also been stopped and have not been allowed to enter state borders where prohibition orders have already been issued. Customs officers are working with limited capacity despite the government mandating that customs be available to work 24/7. Several major Indian ports have already declared force majeure after the country’s shipping ministry issued a letter allowing ports to invoke the clause on port activities and operations based on the current COVID-19 situation.

On March 25, the Malaysian government announced that it would be extending its Movement Control Order (MCO) for another two weeks until April 14 after previously imposing a nationwide lockdown from March 18 to 31. The MCO aims to halt all non-essential activities to address the COVID-19 outbreak, though manufacturing of critical items has been allowed to continue. Products that are exempted include fuel and natural gas, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and electronics (including semiconductors produced by leading domestic manufacturers Pentamaster Corporation, Globetronics Technology, and Inari Amerton Bhd.). 

On March 16, the Philippines authorities halted all commercial and transport activity after announcing that it would be imposing an Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ) that covers Luzon Island (including Metro Manila) until at least April 12. The decision came after previous checkpoint measures intended to quarantine the Metropolitan Manila area failed, allowing 3 million people waiting at the exterior to enter the urban area. All Luzon seaports (including Manila, Subic, and Batangas) and international airports remain operational as of this writing.

Middle East and Africa

Due to its geographical location and centrality to Eurasian trade networks, the Middle East is uniquely at risk from the outbreak. Almost all countries in the region have closed or partially closed their borders with Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, and Egypt implementing complete border closures. Partial border closures or restrictions have been adopted in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Bahrain. 

The UAE, a major global air cargo hub home to Dubai-based airlines Etihad Airways and Emirates, announced that all international flights will be suspended from March 25. Although the country said it would continue passenger and cargo flights to the UK, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Australia, South Africa, US, and Canada, the flights will not operate over the two-week period due to the suspension.

Many African countries have similarly shut down their airports and land borders with South Africa, Tunisia, Libya, Sudan, Botswana, Kenya, Cameroon, Ghana, and Ivory Coast having implemented complete border closures. Partial border restrictions have also been introduced in Morocco, Nigeria, Mali, Algeria, Tanzania, Madagascar, and Djibouti. 

In South Africa, the government declared a nationwide lockdown effective from March 26 midnight until April 15, where only essential goods and services may be transported, delivered, or picked up. Essential goods have been defined as products such as food; cleaning and hygiene; medical; essential services (e.g. machinery required to keep food and medical production going); production, manufacturing supply, logistics, transport, delivery, critical repairs and maintenance in relation to essential services; and the transport of persons rendering essential services. 

Recommendations

The expansion of border protection measures to stymie the outbreak of the novel coronavirus has had minimal impact on the flow of cargo itself across land borders, though the situation may change rapidly as further restrictions are imposed. Impacts can also be anticipated in areas where the unimpeded flow of labor, such as truckers, is necessary to ensure that goods keep moving. The biggest impact has stemmed from the flight cancellations arising from travel bans, leaving shippers with limited cargo capacity options.

Given the fluidity of the situation, organizations are advised to:

  • Monitor updates on further lockdowns and border restrictions: Companies should continue to proactively monitor updates of further government-mandated lockdowns and restrictions as the COVID-19 outbreak worsens. This will enable customers to re-route any critical shipments and avoid areas that may be subject to border delays or closures. 
  • Identify options for re-routing shipments: Customers should consider re-routing via alternative transit countries to mitigate any potential service disruptions. Due to the border closures and flight cancellations, a number of rerouting and charter options may be available.
  • Assess supplier impact and vulnerabilities: Improving visibility by mapping out one’s global multi-tier supply chain will help with understanding where and which key suppliers might be subject to border closures and lockdown-type restrictions. This includes quickly assessing critical locations within the network such as single-source suppliers, high-revenue impact suppliers, and logistical bottlenecks including key ports and airports that the network traditionally relies upon. 
  • Explore alternative sourcing capabilities: Given the fluidity of the situation, companies should be prepared to explore alternative sourcing capabilities if a critical supplier is impacted. Customers should assess whether there is sufficient existing inventory or if alternative sources (e.g. suppliers that may not be subject to lockdown restrictions) are needed in the short-term. 

Appendix

COUNTRYREGIONSTATUS
Albania EuropeSeveral border crossings with Montenegro, Kosovo, and North Macedonia closed.  
AlgeriaMiddle EastAll land, air, and maritime borders have been suspended, with the exception of cargo transporting goods. On March 23, Algerian authorities announced a full lockdown of the cities of Wilayat and Blida and a partial lockdown for the capital Algiers. Checkpoints have been placed in the four corners of Wilayat and no one may enter or leave Blida. As of March 19, air and sea travel with Europe has been halted after having previously halted air travel for Morocco and China.
Antigua & BarbudaCaribbeanAs of March 12, foreign nationals with travel history to China, Japan, Iran, South Korea, and Italy in the past 28 days will not be permitted into Antigua & Barbuda.
ArgentinaSouth AmericaArgentina announced on March 15 that it closed its borders to all incoming foreigners for at least two weeks. 
AustraliaOceaniaOn March 19, Australia closed its borders to all visitors except citizens and permanent residents. Several Australian states (Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia, Northern Territory, Tasmania) imposed statewide border closures but cargo traffic remains unaffected. Queensland Government mandated that no vessel, from any country, can enter Queensland waters until at least 14 days have elapsed. 
AustriaEuropeBorders closed with Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. 
BangladeshAsia-PacificIndo-Bangladeshi border closed from March 13 to April 15. All flights from Europe, except for the UK, are banned from March 16 to 31. 
BelizeCaribbeanOnly the Santa Elena border with Guatemala and Philip Goldson International Airport permit entry, and cargo vessels may continue to use all ports.
BelarusEuropeNo entry restrictions imposed as of March 24. 
Belgium Europe Additional border checks at French-Belgian borders slowing down traffic in border regions. 
BoliviaSouth AmericaNational health emergency declared and border lockdown extended from March 31 to April 15.
BosniaEuropeBanned entry from high-risk countries; additional border checks imposed. 
BrazilSouth AmericaAs of March 19, Brazil is restricting entry of foreign visitors at land borders with Argentina Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Suriname and French Guiana, following a similar restriction at the Venezuelan border.
BulgariaEuropeLand border with Turkey closed to passengers, but not cargo. 
CameroonAfricaCargo planes are not grounded amid the land, air and sea border closure in effect indefinitely from March 18.
CanadaNorth AmericaOn March 18, Canada closed its borders with the U.S. by mutual decision. Trucks and trains carrying goods are exempted from the new measures. 
ChileSouth AmericaAs of March 18, borders are closed to non-resident foreigners.
ChinaAsia-PacificChina has temporarily closed its borders from March 28 to foreigners. Hubei lifting travel restrictions entering and leaving province on March 25. Incoming and outgoing international flights to be slashed. Wuhan lifting lockdown measures and allowing transportation to resume on April 8.
ColombiaSouth AmericaAll land, air, and sea borders are closed through May 30. Nationwide lockdown effective from March 25 for 19 days.
Costa RicaCentral AmericaCosta Rica has declared a state of emergency and will close its borders to foreigners and non-residents effective from March 18 23:59 local time. The restriction applies to the country’s ports of entry via land, sea, or air. The travel restrictions will continue through at least April 12 at 23:59 local time.
CroatiaEuropeCross-border train travel suspended. Entering Croatian drivers may enter provided they do not exit their trucks. Road police convoys trucks transiting though Croatia through specific border points, limiting available transport routes. 
CyprusEuropeBorders are closed to all except Cypriots, Europeans working in Cyprus, and foreigners with special permits from March 15.
Czech RepublicEuropeAs of March 16, borders are closed for all but Czech citizens and temporary/permanent residents. 
DenmarkEuropeAll land borders closed until April 14. No impact on logistics and transportation of goods.  
Dominican RepublicCaribbeanAs of March 16, all flights from Europe are suspended for 1 month, and land borders closed with Haiti.
DjiboutiAfricaAs of March 15, all international flights are suspended.
EcuadorSouth AmericaAs of March 16, all borders are closed for 21 days.
EgyptAfricaAs of March 19, all air traffic is suspended until March 31.
El SalvadorCentral AmericaNon-resident foreigners are prohibited from entry, and Archbishop Romero International Airport is closed to international flights as of March 16.
EstoniaEuropeAdditional border controls implemented on March 16. International cargo (particularly food and medical supplies) permitted.
FinlandEuropeState of emergency declared and cross-border traffic to be restricted from March 19. 
France Europe Borders closed for non-citizens since March 17. 
GeorgiaAsiaBorders closed for all non-citizens. Air traffic has been halted since March 20. Border closure between Azerbaijan and Georgia extended until April 20.
GermanyEuropeBorders closed with Austria, Denmark, France, Luxembourg and Switzerland; additional controls imposed for sea transport with Denmark since March 16. 
GhanaAfricaAll borders closed from March 22. Entry prohibited to those with travel history to countries with 200+ COVID-19 cases as of March 17, except for Ghanaian nationals and official residents.
GreeceEuropeRoad and sea routes closed with Albania and North Macedonia, but no impact on cargo movement. Land border with Turkey closed for passengers but not logistics.  
GuatemalaCentral AmericaGovernment announced closure of all borders for 15 days on March 16. Only cargo flights allowed from March 16 to 30. 
GuyanaSouth AmericaAll airports face partial closure from March 18 to April 3.
HaitiCaribbeanGround border closed with Dominican Republic and all non-US international flights suspended.
HondurasCentral AmericaThe movement of goods unaffected after Honduras announced, effective from 11:59 on March 14, that the country’s borders was closed to all traffic for one week. 
HungaryEuropeBorders closed to all international passengers. 
IndiaAsia-PacificOn March 25, the Indian government imposed a nationwide lockdown from midnight for 21 days with exemptions being granted for the delivery of all essential goods including food, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment through e-commerce.  Integrated checkpoints (ICPs) at all airports, seaports, land ports, rail ports, and river ports are closed. 
IraqMiddle EastOn March 22, Iraqi authorities announced a nationwide lockdown until Saturday, March 28. The country’s airports are closed. In Baghdad, a travel ban prohibiting any travel into or out of the city will be extended until March 28. It is unclear whether exceptions will be made. Iraq suspended flights at its domestic airports from March 17 to 24 and on March 15 the country suspended all flights to and from Baghdad International Airport over the same period.
IrelandEuropeAll non-essential travel within country banned as of March 24.   
ItalyEuropeNationwide lockdown from March 10 to April 3, but no entry restrictions apart from border controls to ensure the implementation of the lockdown. 
IsraelMiddle EastIsrael closes borders with Egypt, Ras Naqura crossing with Lebanon, and the Quneitra crossing with Syria. 
Ivory CoastAfricaIvory Coast authorities announced on March 20 that the country’s air, sea, and land borders would be closed to all human traffic beginning on March 22 until further notice. The announcement specified that the transport of goods and humanitarian aid across Ivorian borders would remain authorized.
JamaicaCaribbeanTravel restrictions for travelers from Iran, China, South Korea, Italy, Singapore, Germany, Spain, France, and the UK
JordanMiddle EastJordan’s air, land, and sea borders have been closed to incoming and outgoing traffic since March 17. The country also implemented a nationwide ban on nonessential movement on March 21. The army sealed the capital city of Amman off from the rest of the country and placed its residents on lockdown. Land borders closed entirely with Israel and the West Bank, only to passenger traffic with Iraq; sea borders closed to Egyptian shipping; travel to Lebanon and Syria and from France, Germany, and Spain is prohibited.
KazakhstanAsia-PacificAs of March 15, borders closed except for returning citizens, diplomats, and government invitees, and Kazakhs are barred from leaving Kazakhstan.
Kosovo EuropeBorder with Albania closed until March 28; additional health and safety checks at border crossings implemented. 
KenyaAfricaTravel suspended from any country with reported COVID-19 cases.
KyrgyzstanAsia-PacificEntry banned to all foreigners as of March 17.
LaosAsia-PacificOn March 15, authorities in Huaphan province issued a notice for the temporary closure of 10 border checkpoints in the province which is bordered by Vietnam until further notice. Four checkpoints will remain open, namely the Namsoiy (Na Meo) international checkpoint, as well as Ban Darn, Pa Hang, and Somvang. 
LatviaEuropeBorders closed to anyone but citizens and legal residents as of midnight on March 17. All travel via land, sea and air has been canceled. 
LebanonMiddle EastLebanon extends lockdown by two weeks until April 12. All non-essential businesses closed along with Beirut airport.
LibyaAfricaIn Libya, land and sea border crossing points were closed on March 16. The government then implemented a curfew on March 24 and will remain in effect until April 3. UN-backed GNA indicates border closures and flight suspensions at Misrata for 3 weeks.
LithuaniaEuropeBorders closed to all non-citizens, expect logistics. 
MalaysiaAsia-PacificExtending Movement Control Order lockdown until April 14, although non-essential services will continue. All China, Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan flagged vessels, or any vessels that had entered any ports in those countries in the past 14 days from their arrival to Malaysian water, are prohibited from entering any ports in Malaysia.  
MexicoNorth AmericaAll non-essential activities suspended from March 26. On March 20, Mexico and the U.S. agree to temporarily close its borders to non-essential travel but would allow trade and commerce to continue uninterrupted.   
MoldovaEuropeBorders closed since March 17.
MontenegroEuropeSeveral border crossings closed with Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo and Albania; unclear if any remain open as of March 24. Air, bus and rail traffic suspended.  
MoroccoMiddle EastMorocco announced on March 13 that all flights and passenger ship traffic to and from France will be suspended due to the ongoing outbreak. All travel, including air and maritime traffic, also remains suspended with Italy, Spain, Algeria, and China. 
NepalAsia-PacificAll land ports closed to foreigners from third countries through April 30. Only Tribhuvan International Airport can be used as a port of entry. 
NetherlandsEuropeEntry restrictions tightened for non-EU citizens, except Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, and UK from March 19. 
New ZealandAsia-PacificOn March 19, the New Zealand government announced the closure of its borders for all except citizens and permanent residents. 
NigeriaAfricaAll of the country’s borders closed to human traffic from March 23 for four weeks. Closing its two main international airports in Lagos and Abuja from March 23 for one month. 
North MacedoniaEuropeBorders closed to all but citizens and legal residents. Skopje International Airport closed at midnight on March 19. 
NorwayEuropeAll ports and airports closed until April 13 no impact on cargo. Additional border checks imposed at land border with Sweden.
North KoreaAsia-PacificAs of February 20, North Korea is confirmed to have closed its border and cut transport links with China due to the coronavirus outbreak.
OmanMiddle EastOn March 24, Oman announced all international and domestic flight operations will be suspended. The suspension will go into effect on March 29. Cargo flights will be exempt, as will flights to Musandam province. All border crossing points via land, sea, and air remain closed to all individuals except citizens of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. 
PakistanAsia-PacificAs of March 13, all borders closed for 15 days.
PanamaCentral AmericaAs of March 16, only Panamanians and foreign residents permitted to enter.
ParaguaySouth AmericaAll borders closed as of March 16 except for Paraguayans and resident foreign nationals.
PeruSouth AmericaAll borders closed as of March 16 for 15 days.
PhilippinesAsia-PacificOn March 16, Philippines authorities halted all commercial and transport activity after announcing that it would be imposing an Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ) that covers Luzon Island (including Metro Manila) until at least April 14. The movement of all types of cargoes should be unhampered during the Luzon-wide enhanced community quarantine. Cebu province placed under ECQ from March 27. The movement of all types of cargoes unaffected.
PolandEuropeBorders closed for all but citizens and legal residents from March 15. International train and air transport suspended on March 15. 
Portugal EuropeBorder controls imposed at land border with Spain; no restrictions on cargo movement.  
QatarMiddle EastAll non-transit and cargo flights banned as of March 18.
Romania EuropeBorders closed for all foreign citizens, with exception of those transiting through Romania using agreed on corridors. 
RussiaEuropeBorders closed to all but citizens, legal residents and transit passengers until May 1.  
Saudi ArabiaMiddle EastAs of March 15, land borders between Saudi Arabia and the UAE, Kuwait, and Jordan are currently restricted to commercial traffic only. The border closure also applies to the causeway between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. 
SerbiaEuropeAll road, rail and air entry points closed to non-citizens, except for freight traffic. Additional entry restrictions apply to truck drivers from Italy, Switzerland, Romania, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Greece, which are required to quarantine upon arrival or may be rejected from entering altogether. Serbian drivers transporting goods are relieved from self-quarantine measures. For the trucks transiting through RS to further destination countries: drivers are obliged to transit and leave the country within 12 hours.
SlovakiaEuropeClosed all three international airports on March 12; international bus and rail travel suspended. 
SloveniaEuropeSome border crossings with Italy closed; transit of trucks through Slovenia from Italy prohibited until further notice. Health checks implemented at remaining open borders with Italy and Austria.
South AfricaAfricaNationwide lockdown effective from March 26 until April 16. Only essential goods and services may be transported, delivered, or picked up in South Africa. 
South KoreaAsia-PacificAs of March 17, border checks are tightened for all overseas arrivals.
SpainEuropeEmergency measures extended until April 12. Closed land borders for all but citizens and legal residents on March 16. Restricted entry for most non-citizens at air and seaports for 30 days on March 22. Measures do not apply to cargo movement. 
Sri LankaAsia-PacificThe Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka announced that Jaffna International Airport has ceased operations from March 15 to March 30. The airport will continue to be open for domestic flights. 
SudanAfricaAs of March 16, land, sea and air crossings are closed except for humanitarian, commercial, and technical support shipments.
SurinameSouth AmericaAs of March 14, Suriname has closed borders in its entirety due to COVID-19. 
SwedenEuropeAdditional border checks at land border with Norway implemented by Norwegian governments; all non-essential travel from outside the EEA and Switzerland is banned for 30 days from March 19. 
SwitzerlandEurope Closed borders for citizens from high-risk countries such as Germany, Italy, Austria, and France, with the exception of legal residents.
SyriaMiddle EastOn February 27, the Self-Administration in North and East Syria decided to close the Semalka border crossing with the Kurdistan Region. This decision remains in effect as of March 1.
Trinidad & TobagoCaribbeanAs of March 17, borders are closed to foreigners for 14 days.
ThailandAsia-PacificAll 13 temporary land border crossings between Thailand and Malaysia closed. No.1 Thai-Myanmar Friendship Bridge to be temporarily shut until further notice. Phu Nam Ron and Three Pagodas border crossings to be shut from March 21 to April 3. The Sa Kaeo border crossing opposite of Cambodia to be closed from March 23 to April 5. 
TunisiaAfricaLand borders are closed and international flights are suspended as of March 16. 
TurkeyEuropeLand borders with Greece, Bulgaria, Iran, and Iraq closed. Dilucu crossing with Azerbaijan and Sarp crossing with Georgia closed. Border restrictions do not apply to cargo. Turkish truckers are allowed to enter Turkey but will be subject to 14-day quarantine. EU drivers are banned from entry completely, while foreign non-EU drivers are not allowed to enter as well.  
TurkmenistanAsia-PacificBorder with Uzbekistan and Iran closed since early February. 
UkraineEuropeAll foreigners barred from entering since March 16. Flight, bus, and train traffic suspended from March 18 to April 3. 
United Arab EmiratesMiddle EastOn March 23, the UAE government announced the extension of domestic and travel restrictions for an additional two weeks due to the ongoing pandemic. All passenger and transit flights to and from the country will be suspended from March 25 for two weeks.
United Kingdom Europe Government announced nationwide lockdown for all but essential movement, but no specific entry restrictions into the UK. 
United StatesNorth AmericaBorders with Canada and Mexico closed to non-essential traffic.
UruguaySouth AmericaAll flights from Europe banned as of March 20.
UzbekistanAsia-PacificOn March 19, the government of Uzbekistan announced that all borders will be closed to passengers from March 20 for 40 days after the country has confirmed four COVID-19 cases. Cargo transportation is not anticipated to be impacted. The prohibition applies to land, sea, and air.
VenezuelaSouth AmericaAll flights from Europe, Colombia, Panama, and the Dominican Republic canceled for 30 days.
VietnamAsia-PacificAs of March 19, the Vietnamese government has locked down its borders with Cambodia impacting five international borders (Bavet-Moc Bai, Kaam Samnor-Vinh Xuong, Phnom Den-Tinh Bien, Prek Chak-Xa Xia and O’Yadao-Le Thanh). 
YemenMiddle EastAs of March 18, all flights suspended to and from airports under internationally recognized government’s control for 2 weeks except for humanitarian flights.
Appendix A: Global Border Closures Due to COVID-19 (as of March 27, 00:00 GMT)

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