Global Semiconductor Shortage Triggering Production Delays for AutomakersEverstream Team
- Over recent weeks, a global semiconductor shortage has severely disrupted the auto sector and caused automakers to either suspend or reduce industrial production, which may further delay recovery for new vehicle sales and profitability in the sector.
- While chipmakers have been called upon to help alleviate the situation by expanding capacity, the supply shortages are expected to carry over well into 2021 given that it can take semiconductor manufacturers around 6-9 months to realign production and meet required additional volumes.
- Everstream Analytics has identified several factors that have contributed to the current global semiconductor shortage: mass order cancellations from automakers amid the COVID-19 crisis; an unexpected surge in post-pandemic consumer demand in the auto market; limited available semiconductor manufacturers capable of producing advanced chips; excessive stockpiling; and unforeseen production disruptions.
- Although automakers have borne the brunt of the global semiconductor shortage for now, the squeeze on global chip supplies is likely to impact other industries — ranging from consumer electronics to medical device manufacturers — as semiconductor foundries are stretched to full capacity and unable to take on new orders.
Over recent weeks, a global semiconductor shortage has severely disrupted the automotive sector and caused leading multinational automakers to either suspend or reduce industrial production, which may further delay recovery for new vehicle sales and profitability in the sector. The situation, which could persist for at least 6-9 months, has come about amid the backdrop of unexpected resurgent consumer demand in the auto market and mass order cancellations for semiconductors by automakers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This comes on the heels of potential heavy competition with other industries for chip supplies as semiconductor manufacturers have been called upon to address these supply shortages confronting the global auto industry.
This Everstream Analytics Special Report takes a closer look into the challenges that the current global chip supply shortages pose to auto manufacturers and provides analysis on the various factors that may be triggering the sudden drop in the availability. In addition, it delves further into whether the current semiconductor supply shortages could impact production beyond the auto industry — particularly high-tech network, consumer electronics, and medical devices manufacturers — and spread to other sectors over the longer term should these supply chain challenges continue to persist.
Global Chip Shortage and Impact on the Auto Industry
First reported in December 2020, the global chip supply shortage has seen a number of multinational Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) automakers forced to either suspend production or reduce output (see Appendix A). While chipmakers have been called upon to help alleviate the situation by expanding capacity, the situation is expected to carry over well into 2021 given that it can take semiconductor manufacturers around 6-9 months to realign production and meet the required additional volumes.[i]
Over the past decade, the auto industry has emerged as one of the world’s largest purchasers of semiconductors, particularly amid the emergence in popularity for electric vehicles and as automakers seek to boost the appeal of their products with more sophisticated technologies such as touch screens, computerized engine controls and transmissions; built-in cellular and Wi-Fi connections are often inputted into the latest models. Nowadays, new vehicles can consist of hundreds of semiconductors and a shortage of even a single component can trigger production delays.
The main types of semiconductors going into cars come primarily in the form of control chips, analog and mixed signal power chips and transistors, sensors, wireless communications, interface chips, and memory chips.[ii] Among the components that are facing severe shortages include integrated circuits (ICs) — which are used to control engines, transmissions, and other important functions — as well as microcontrollers that are needed to power parking sensors, airbags, and entertainment systems.[iii] In addition, chip-packing substrates and other substrate materials are reportedly in short supply and needed for packing high-end chips that are often used in cars, servers, and base stations.[iv]
Potential Causes Behind the Global Chip Shortage
Everstream Analytics outlines below the drivers for the current global semiconductor shortage and how organizations can mitigate their impact.
Unexpected consumer demand and forecasting challenges
Global consumer demand — particularly driven by a rebounding Chinese economy and auto market — has unexpectedly risen for car orders despite many regions continuing to struggle with COVID-19 restrictions, most notably in the U.S. and Europe. According to the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM), China’s car production reached 2.84 million units and sales reached 2.83 million units in December 2020, accounting for a 5.7 percent and 6.4 percent year-on-year (YOY) increase.[i] Although the shortages are not expected to significantly raise auto prices, it may delay the arrival of the latest car models to consumers.
Part of the challenge is that many global manufacturers across all sectors — not only automotive — are competing for the same fabrication plant resources, which has made the shortage more acute. The global chip shortage came largely due to short-term confusion triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic and major cancellation orders made by many automotive OEMs at the start of the crisis in the anticipation that consumer demand would decline. However, this meant that chipmakers reallocated their production capacity to meet growing demand for widely-used consumer electronics (such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops) amid COVID-19 workforce changes and higher-margin chips used for 5G networks and data centers in the absence of orders from automotive customers.
The current supply shortages could cause automakers to re-evaluate their inventory and procurement strategies for specialized automotive chips. For decades, many automakers have traditionally been able to keep inventory costs low by adopting ‘just-in-time’ daily deliveries for components to preserve cash through a system that also allowed for last-minute bidding among parts makers.[ii] However, the current supply shortages may force carmakers to consider building up chip stockpiles to prevent further bottlenecks despite limitations associated with how long semiconductors can be stored in a stockpile.
But not every automaker has been impacted to the same degree. Some Japanese automakers, particularly in the wake of major natural disasters in Japan and Thailand, had diversified their supply chain to hold more inventory, while others managed to avoid shortages due to not having canceled any chip orders when the pandemic hit.[iii], [iv]
For the global semiconductor industry, the companies with the most advanced manufacturing capabilities are largely concentrated among a consolidated number of higher-end manufacturers that are geographically concentrated among a handful of countries (see Figure A).
|COUNTRY||MARKET SHARE (BY %)||LEADING COMPANIES|
|U.S.||45||Micron Technology, Intel, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, NVIDIA, Broadcom, Western Digital, GlobalFoundries, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)|
|South Korea||24||Samsung Electronics, SK Hynix|
|E.U.||9||Infineon, NXP, ASML, STMicroelectronics|
|Japan||9||Toshiba, Sony, Panasonic, Tokyo Electron|
|Taiwan||6||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), Wistron Corporation, United Microelectronics Corporation|
|China||5||Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), HiSilicon|
For automotive semiconductors, the industry requires operational specifications over a wide range of temperatures and environment conditions for digital and analogue integrated circuits (ICs) that are different from consumer electronics. In particular, European integrated device manufacturers (IDM) such as NXP, Infineon, and Bosch play a dominant role within the industry due to their strong expertise and close connections with European automakers and vertical integration (see Figure B).
|COMPANY||COUNTRY||REVENUE (2019, USD IN MILLIONS)|
In addition, Taiwan plays a pivotal role within the global semiconductor supply chain, being home to the world’s largest contract chip manufacturer Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) (see Figure C). TSMC holds a market share of more than 55 percent and has emerged as the only viable option for chip design firms who are looking to develop cutting-edge logic chips that are used for cars, data centers, consumer electronics, and defense applications.[ii] TSMC’s dominance in advanced logic semiconductor manufacturing can partly be attributed to its main competitor for 10 nm processes, Samsung, not being a ‘pure-play foundry’ that also designs and sells its own logic chips, while other contract chipmakers have focused instead on alternative processes.[iii]
It therefore comes as little surprise as to why U.S., German, and Japanese government authorities over recent weeks have intervened to call upon Taiwan and its leading semiconductor manufacturers — and, in particular, TSMC — to step up production to alleviate the situation for its automakers. The developments come as export orders rose 49.3 percent to USD 52.7 billion (EUR 43.3 billion) in January 2021 — marking the largest increase since January 2010 on the back of soaring global demand for semiconductors.[iv]
|COMPANY||COUNTRY||SUB-SECTOR||ANNUAL REVENUE (2019, USD IN BILLIONS)|
|Intel Corporation||U.S.||Integrated device manufacturers (IDM)||72|
|Samsung Electronics||South Korea||IDM/Foundry||55.7|
|SK Hynix||South Korea||IDM||23.2|
Over the longer-term, the importance of semiconductors to automakers will almost certainly continue to increase as more sophisticated and durable chips are required to support advanced technologies used in luxury vehicles and electric vehicles. In practice, the current shortages could trigger automakers to take steps towards developing additional in-house manufacturing capabilities for specialized automotive chips or bypassing suppliers and forging closer relationships directly with chipmakers themselves. Automakers rarely buy directly from chipmakers themselves but instead purchase most of their electronics components from suppliers that outsource the design and manufacturing of chips to automotive-focused semiconductor producers.[vi]
Stockpiling and trade restrictions
Other shorter-term triggers can be linked to increased capacity demands on semiconductor firms amid a heavy uptick in stockpiling of key parts and components by major Chinese high-tech manufacturers targeted by U.S. sanctions and export controls that were imposed under the former Trump administration over alleged national security concerns.[vii] The Trump-era trade restrictions were aimed at stemming the flow of cutting-edge U.S. technology to China through its Entity List, which targeted over 300 Chinese entities consisting of major semiconductor, telecommunications, and artificial intelligence (AI) companies, including Huawei, SMIC, and ZTE among others.
Although China has made a concerted effort to boost semiconductor R&D, the vast majority of firms are still largely manufacturing low-and-mid range ICs. On top of that, Chinese companies still make up a relatively small percentage of the automotive semiconductor market and are at least two generations behind in their ability to produce microchips for consumer electronics.[viii] This can help explain the considerable increase from China in advanced semiconductor equipment and computer chip imports from abroad to help fill these demand and capacity gaps. In 2020, Chinese businesses bought almost USD 32 billion (EUR 26.6 billion) worth of equipment used to produce computer chips — representing a 20 percent increase from 2019 — from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and elsewhere.[ix] Imports of computer chips alone reached almost USD 380 billion (EUR 315.9 billion), which made up a staggering 18 percent of all of China’s imports for the year.[x]
Another factor that should not be discounted were the amount of unforeseen disruptions — including natural disasters, industrial fires, explosions, power outages, cyberattacks, strikes and industrial action — that have hit various semiconductor manufacturers and suppliers and carried over from late 2020 into the early months of 2021 (see Appendix B).
For the immediate term, global chip shortages are expected to be further exacerbated after leading manufacturers Samsung Electronics, NXP Semiconductors, and Infineon Technologies were all forced to temporarily halt production following the Texas winter storm in mid-February that resulted in mass power outages throughout the state. Although the main users of Samsung’s logic chips are Qualcomm, NVIDIA, and Samsung itself, NXP and Infineon produce memory chips that are critical for automotive and industrial markets.[xi]
In Taiwan, TSMC and United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) have activated water supply plans for some of their foundries due to severe water shortages that have threatened to impact production. Chipmakers require a significant amount of water to clean wafers throughout the production process. To put into perspective, TSMC’s daily water production in 2019 was 156,000 tons per day with its northern production sites accounting for 10.3 percent of the region’s daily water supply. In late February, Taiwan’s Water Resources Agency ordered plants in several cities to tighten water use by up to 11 percent in selected areas.[xii]
In late 2020, several notable explosions and industrial fires also created serious disruptions that contributed to production halts and semiconductor shortages. On October 20, a major fire that broke out at Asahi Kasei Microsystem’s (AKM) semiconductor plant in Nobeoka City, Japan lasted over two days has also impacted global chip supplies after extensive damages were reported at the facility. Although AKM produces many types of IC components at its factories, the Nobeoka plant is believed to be solely responsible for Digital-to-Analogue Converter (DAC) and ADC products.[xiii] Unimicron Technology, which produces printed circuit boards, was also hit with a fire in late October 2020 at its Taoyuan, Taiwan plant that caused shipment delays for its Flip Chip-Chip Scale Package (FCCSP) substrates for processing handset SoCs (System-on-a-Chip) until 2021 Q1.[xiv]
For automakers, the short-to-medium term outlook suggests that the global semiconductor shortage is unlikely to be resolved quickly due in part to delays in the delivery of manufacturing equipment and intense competition for fab resources from other industries. Although the automotive industry has borne the brunt of the global semiconductor shortage for now, the squeeze is likely to impact other major industries as semiconductor foundries are stretched to full capacity and unable to take on new orders.
In the case of consumer electronics, the shortages have not yet hit the supply of laptops and televisions — which rely on IC chips used to power electronics displays — but several major manufacturers have already confirmed that they would not be able to meet demand for smartphones and gaming consoles due to the current situation.[i], [ii] While not as imminent, similar challenges could face medical device manufacturers down the road as demand for pacemakers and other vital health care devices that require more computing power and semiconductor components pick up.
Everstream Analytics recommends the below measures in light of the current global semiconductor supply shortage challenges:
- Re-evaluate inventory strategies: The current supply shortages highlight the need to look at re-evaluating inventory strategies and reviewing whether there may need to be adjustments from the ‘just-in-time’ delivery practices for semiconductor components that many automakers have adopted. Although lean supplies can help improve efficiencies under normal circumstances, the current situation has shown the value of making sure that inventory levels are appropriate can be a critical factor in ensuring that supply chains are managed successfully.
- Adopt more dynamic demand forecasting: Although the COVID-19 crisis brought about significant disruptions, manufacturers will need to make sure that their demand forecasting is more dynamic and accurate moving forward. Examining short-term historical data and forecasts on a regular basis, with a view towards some uncertainties, can help with improved planning for how much of certain components may be needed and help estimate consumer demand in order to avoid further supply bottlenecks in the future.
- Monitor unforeseen disruptions: Companies can use real-time supply chain risk monitoring tools to continuously keep abreast of potential unforeseen disruptions. This can include identifying important suppliers for key components that are dependent on chip sourcing, as well as potential signs of financial stress facing mid-tier suppliers.
- Keep abreast of regulatory developments: A large part of making sure supply chains remain secure and resilient is being able to keep track of regulatory trends. While it remains unclear whether trade restrictions facing the semiconductor industry will be eased in the short-term, companies should continue to keep abreast of any changes in the event that export controls or tariffs may be eased.
|Audi||Delayed production of higher-end cars and idles 10,000 staff in mid-January due to chip shortages.|
Germany: Suspended production at Ingolstadt factory from January 21 to end-January. Production suspended at Neckarsulm factory from January 18 until end-January.
|Fiat Chrysler||Canada: Halted operations at facility in Brampton, Ontario in early January due to chip shortages.|
Mexico: Delayed restart of output at Toluca plant until end-January.
|Ford||U.S.: Closed plant in Louisville, Kentucky (U.S.) on February 1 that makes Escape and Lincoln Corsair SUVs. Plant production cut at Chicago, Illinois (U.S.) factory for Ford Explorer and Lincoln Aviator SUVs. Idled SUV plant in Louisville, Kentucky on January 8 for a week.|
Canada: Idled factory in Oakville, Ontario (Canada) where it produces Ford Edge and Lincoln Nautilus SUVs.
Germany: Halted production for a full month from January 18 to February 19 at Saarlouis manufacturing facility.
Romania: Halted production at Craiova plant from February 26 until at least March 10 due to chip shortage.
|General Motors||U.S.: Halted production at Fairfax, Kansas plant until mid-March from February 9.|
Canada: Halted production at Ingersoll, Ontario plant until mid-March from February 9
Mexico: Halted production at San Luis Potosi plant until mid-March from February 9.
South Korea: Cutting production at Korean plant from February 8 due to chip shortage.
|Honda||U.K.: Closed Swindon, U.K. plant operations for four days from January 18-21|
U.S.: Adjusted production at Marysville and East Liberty plants in Ohio as well as facilities in Alabama and Indiana.
Japan: Shut down its plant in Suzuka, Mie Prefecture for five days in February.
|Mazda||Considered cutting global output by 34,000 vehicles in February and March due to chip shortages.|
|Nissan||U.S.: Some truck production suspended at Canton, Mississippi facility on February 3 beginning with three non-production days.|
Japan: Adjusting production at its plant in Fukuoka Prefecture in mid-February due to component shortages.
U.K.: Furloughed 750 workers at Sunderland plant amid chip shortages.
|Renault||France: Suspended production in Sandouville plant for two days during the week of February 8.|
Romania: Suspended production in Pitesti plant for three days during the week of February 8. Temporarily halted production at Mioveni plant on February 1.
Morocco: Slowed production at Tangier and Meloussa sites in Morocco in mid-February due to chip shortages.
|Stellantis||Canada: Idled plant in Windsor, Ontario for three weeks from February 8. Idled Brampton, Ontario factory for a month in January.|
Mexico: Extended downtime in January at Toluca plant that makes the Jeep Compass.
Italy: Extended production halt at its Melfi plant over ship shortage on February 15-16 and 22-23.
Germany: Suspended production at its Eisenach factory for 24 hours on February 5
Spain: Temporarily halted one of its production lines at Zaragoza plant on February 4
|Subaru||Announced output cuts by a few thousand units each in January at Japanese and U.S. factories.|
Japan: Shut down main Gunma factory along with Yajima and Oizumi plants for two days starting from January 15 due to chip shortage.
|Tesla||U.S.: Temporarily halted production at Fremont, California auto assembly plant from February 22 to March 7 due to supply chain issues.|
|Toyota||U.S.: Cut output of its Tundra pickup truck manufactured in San Antonio, Texas by 40 percent in January.|
Japan: Halted four production lines at three plants in Aichi prefecture on January 15 due to parts shortages.
China: Halted some production lines at Guangzhou factory in mid-January due to chip shortages.
|Volkswagen||Germany: Suspended production at Emden factory from January 18 for two weeks. Halted production of Golf models in Wolfsburg for four days in March.|
|Samsung Electronics||Winter storm||February 16, 2021||Texas, U,.S.||Forced to temporarily halt chip plant operations due to power supply issues|
|NXP Semiconductors||Winter storm||February 17, 2021||Austin, Texas, U,.S.||Idled two chip manufacturing plants due to power supply issues|
|Infineon Technologies||Winter storm||February 16, 2021||Austin, Texas, U,.S.||Shut down plant due to power supply disruptions|
|Micron Technology||Power outage||December 3, 2020||Taoyuan, Taiwan||Fab 11 wafer fab went offline for over an hour|
|STMicroelectronics||Industrial action||November 2020||Crolles, France||Labor dispute over salary issues|
|Asahi Kasei Microsystem||Explosion||October 20, 2020||Nobeoka City, Japan||Disruptions for the supply of DAC and ADC chip supplies.|
|Unimicron Technology||Industrial fire||October 28, 2020||Taoyuan, Taiwan||Shipment delays for its Flip Chip-Chip Scale Package (FCCSP) substrates for processing handset SoCs (System on a Chip) until 2021 Q1.|
|Tower Semiconductor||Ransomware||September 6, 2020||Israel||Disruptions to servers and manufacturing operations|
[i] “VW, Bosch, Continental say chip shortages will cause supply bottlenecks.” Automotive News Europe. December 4, 2020. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://europe.autonews.com/suppliers/vw-bosch-continental-say-chip-shortages-will-cause-supply-bottlenecks
[ii] Randall, Stewart. “Where Chinese firms are gearing up in automotive semiconductors.” Technode. February 3, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://technode.com/2021/02/03/silicon-where-chinese-firms-are-gearing-up-in-automotive-semiconductors/
[iii] Ewing, Jack and Clark, Don. “Lack of tiny parts disrupts auto factories worldwide.” New York Times. January 13, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/13/business/auto-factories-semiconductor-chips.html
[iv] Cheng, Ting-Fang and Li, Lauly. “Chipmaker Xilinx says car supply crunch goes beyond semiconductors.” Nikkei Asia. February 4, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Tech/Semiconductors/Chipmaker-Xilinx-says-car-supply-crunch-goes-beyond-semiconductors
[ii] Inagaki, Kana, Keohane, David, Yang, Yuan, and Miller, Joe. “Global chip shortage puts car supply chain under the microscope.” Financial Times. January 26, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.ft.com/content/13094950-fb45-4686-9ef9-8199c674b90d
[iv] Trivedi, Anjani. “Toyota broke it’s just-in-time rule just in time for the chip shortage.” Bloomberg. February 16, 2021. Accessed on February 26, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2021-02-15/toyota-broke-its-just-in-time-rule-just-in-time-for-the-chip-shortage?sref=qlB3iiyb
[i] Kleinhans, Jan-Peter and Baisakova, Nurzat. “The global semiconductor value chain: A technology primer for policy makers.” Stiftung Neue Verantwortung. October 2020. https://www.stiftung-nv.de/sites/default/files/the_global_semiconductor_value_chain.pdf
[ii] Lee, John and Kleinhans, Jan-Peter. “Taiwan, Chips, and Geopolitics.” The Diplomat. December 10, 2020. Accessed on February 26, 2021. https://thediplomat.com/2020/12/taiwan-chips-and-geopolitics-part-1/
[iv] Wu. Debby and Ellis, Samson. “Taiwan’s January export orders jump 49%, beating estimates.” Bloomberg News. February 24, 2021. Accessed on February 25, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-24/taiwan-s-january-export-orders-jump-49-beating-estimates?cmpid=BBD022421_TRADE&utm_medium=email&utm_source=newsletter&utm_term=210224&utm_campaign=trade&sref=qlB3iiyb
[v] Crawford, Alan, Dillard, Jarrel, Fouquet, Helene, and Reynolds, Isabel. “The world is dangerously dependent on Taiwan for semiconductors.” Bloomberg. February 2, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.bloombergquint.com/technology/the-world-is-dangerously-dependent-on-taiwan-for-semiconductors#:~:text=The%20World%20Is%20Dangerously%20Dependent%20on%20Taiwan%20for%20Semiconductors,-Alan%20Crawford&text=(Bloomberg)%20%2D%2D%20As%20China%20pushes,become%20on%20the%20island%20democracy.
[vi] Nicholas, Katrina. Naughton, Keith, Coppola, Gabrielle, and Wu, Debby. “Carmakers face $61 billion sales hit from pandemic chip shortage.” January 21, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-27/covid-pandemic-slows-down-chipmakers-causes-car-shortage?sref=qlB3iiyb
[vii] “Huawei outhustles Trump by hoarding chips vital for China 5G.” Bloomberg News. October 30, 2020. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.bloombergquint.com/china/huawei-outhustles-trump-by-stockpiling-chips-needed-for-china-5g. Klayman, Ben and Nellis, Stephen. “Trump’s China tech war backfires on automakers as chips run short.” Reuters. January 15, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021.
[viii] Capri, Alex. “Semiconductors at the heart of the U.S.-China tech war.” Hinrich Foundation. January 17, 2020. Accessed on October 1, 2020. https://www.hinrichfoundation.com/research/wp/tech/semiconductors-at-the-heart-of-the-us-china-tech-war/
[ix] “The struggle over chips enters a new phase.” The Economist. January 23, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2021/01/23/the-struggle-over-chips-enters-a-new-phase; “China stockpiles chips, chip-making machines to resist U.S.” Bloomberg News. February 3, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-02/china-stockpiles-chips-and-chip-making-machines-to-resist-u-s?sref=qlB3iiyb
[xi] Jaewon, Kim. “Winter storm forces Samsung to halt Texas chip plant operations.” Nikkei Asia. February 17, 2021. Accessed on March 3, 2021. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Winter-storm-forces-Samsung-to-halt-Texas-chip-plant-operations
[xii] Lee, Yimou. “Chipmakers in drought-hit Taiwan order water trucks to prepare for the worst.” Reuters. February 24, 2021. Accessed on February 25, 2021. https://www.reuters.com/article/taiwan-drought-semiconductors/chipmakers-in-drought-hit-taiwan-order-water-trucks-to-prepare-for-the-worst-idUKL4N2KU1JZ
[xiii] “Stock disruptions expected as AKM factory in Japan burns. November 1, 2020. Stereonet. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.stereonet.co.uk/news/stock-disruptions-expected-as-akm-factory-in-japan-burns
[xiv] “Apple supplier Unimicron Technology’s plant catches fire in Taiwan.” Gizmochina. October 29, 2020. Accessed on February 23, 2021.
[i] Wu, Debby, Savov, Vlad, and Mochizuki, Takashi. “Chip shortage spirals beyond cars to phones and controls.” Bloomberg. February 8, 2021. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-05/chip-shortage-spirals-beyond-cars-to-phones-and-game-consoles?sref=qlB3iiyb
[ii] Bradshaw, Tim. “Chip shortage threatens PlayStation 5 supply as demand races ahead.” Financial Times. February 23, 2021. Accessed on February 26, 2021. https://www.ft.com/content/f7c089dc-515e-4387-82fd-ea0a49998650?mod=djemlogistics_h
 Jaewon, Kim. “Winter storm forces Samsung to halt Texas chip plant operations.” Nikkei Asia. February 17, 2021. Accessed on February 25, 2021. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Winter-storm-forces-Samsung-to-halt-Texas-chip-plant-operations
 King, Ian. “Texas power failures shut chip factories, squeezing tight supply.” Bloomberg News. February 18, 2021. Accessed on February 25, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-17/texas-power-failure-shuts-chip-factories-squeezes-tight-supply?sref=qlB3iiyb
 Fitch, Asa. “Texas winter storm strikes chip makers, compounding supply woes.” Wall Street Journal. February 17, 2021. Accessed on February 25, 2021. https://www.wsj.com/articles/texas-winter-storm-strikes-chip-makers-compounding-supply-woes-11613588617
 Clarke, Peter. “Strike calls continue at STMicroelectronics in France.” eeNews Europe. November 19, 2020. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.eenewseurope.com/news/strike-calls-continue-stmicroelectronics-france; Thomas, Bastien. “Conflit social à ST Microelectronics à Crolles : des débrayages pour dire non au gel des salaires en 2020.” France Bleu. November 25, 2020. Accessed on February 23, 2021. https://www.francebleu.fr/infos/economie-social/conflit-social-a-st-microelectronics-crolles-des-debrayages-pour-dire-non-au-gel-des-salaires-en-1606240034
 AKM predominantly manufactures and supplies both DAC and wireless Bluetooth chipsets.