COVID-19 Outbreak in The U.S. and Canada:
Impact on North American Supply Chain Operations

COVID-19 Outbreak in The U.S. and Canada:
Impact on North American Supply Chain Operations

Executive Summary

  • The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant supply chain and logistics disruptions throughout the North American continent as firms and manufacturers scramble to cope with various levels of government-mandated restrictions. 
  • Everstream Analytics has identified 46 out of 50 U.S. states that have ordered at least some form of official stay-at-home order or mandate for non-essential businesses to close due to the COVID-19 epidemic. At least 19 states have adopted statewide restrictions that remain in effect until May 1 and beyond, while another 21 states have measures in place until April 30 or earlier. In Canada, eight provinces (including Quebec and Ontario) and one territory have ordered non-essential businesses to close down. Appendix A of this report outlines the measures adopted by each state and province.
  • The ability of North American manufacturers to weather the operations and supply chain impacts is dependent on whether federal and statewide directives have defined them as an “essential” service. The U.S. has largely adopted a more patchwork approach with each state designating their own “essential” sectors, while the Canadian manufacturing hubs of Ontario and Quebec imposed the most severe restrictions north of the border. 

The impact on North American manufacturers has been particularly felt in the life sciences and healthcare; automotive and mobility; engineering and machinery; energy and chemicals; and technology sectors amid the turmoil caused by COVID-19. 

  • From a transport and logistics perspective, capacity constraints and rising air and ocean freight rates have created challenges for global trade lanes coming to and from North America. However, ground freight remains less impacted as the U.S.-Canada border restrictions apply only to non-essential travel and some U.S. states have lifted restrictions on oversized/overweight trucking load permits for transporting emergency medical supplies. 

Background

Since early March, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. and Canada has created serious disruptions to manufacturing operations and logistics networks, and subsequently across global supply chains, throughout North America amid various government-mandated restrictions. 

Although Washington and Ottawa have introduced important measures at the federal levels, state and provincial governments are arguably playing a leading role in restricting movement and compelling non-essential businesses to temporarily close as the COVID-19 situation worsens. As of April 27 00:00 GMT, Everstream Analytics identified 46 out of 50 U.S. states that have adopted an official statewide stay-at-home order or ordered non-essential businesses to close. In Canada, 8 provinces (including Quebec and Ontario) and 1 territory have mandated that non-essential businesses cease operations.

The degree to which North American manufacturers have been affected by the COVID-19 restrictions has been contingent upon whether federal or statewide directives have defined them as “essential” services. While many states make references to federal guidelines, some have offered different interpretations on what sectors should be considered “essential” and opted for looser restrictions or even delegated cities and counties to determine their own restrictions. 

Everstream Analytics provides a breakdown of the manufacturing sectors heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, most notably life sciences and healthcare (LSHC); automotive and mobility; engineering and machinery; energy and chemicals; and technology. It also takes a closer look at the transport and logistics constraints for air, ocean, and ground freight across various states and provinces throughout the U.S. and Canada as the crisis continues to evolve. 

State And Provincial Level Restrictions Due to COVID-19

As the U.S. copes with the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal and state governments have increasingly been split over balancing the public health needs and economic concerns of the country after U.S. President Donald Trump announced his desire to restart the national economy by May 1 or sooner. For the most part, the U.S. has largely responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with sub-national measures adopted at the state, city, and county levels through stay-at-home orders and mandating the shutdown of non-essential or life-sustaining businesses. 

As of April 27 00:00 GMT, Everstream Analytics has found that 46 out of 50 states have ordered at least some form of official stay-at-home order or mandate for non-essential businesses to close amid the COVID-19 epidemic. At least 19 states have adopted statewide restrictions that remain in effect until May 1 and beyond, while another 21 states have measures in place until April 30 or earlier. Six states, including California, Maryland, and Oregon, have adopted executive orders imposing COVID-19 restrictions until further notice with no specified end-date. Only four states – Arkansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Utah – have not officially issued either a statewide stay-at-home order or mandate non-essential businesses to cease operations. 

Figure 01: Geographic map of the U.S. and Canada outlining statewide and provincial-wide restrictions for COVID-19 (as of April 27 00:00 GMT). Source: Everstream Analytics.

The ability of U.S. manufacturers to weather the operations and supply chain impacts is dependent on whether federal and statewide directives have defined them as an “essential” service. So far, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) Essential Operation guidance lists non-medical manufacturing as essential if such manufacturing is pertinent to metals, minerals, semiconductors, transportation, aerospace, nuclear facilities, chemicals, wood, power generation commodities, mining, and those manufacturing operations supporting the other 15 essential categories. While most states make reference to federal CISA guidance, some have adopted much looser restrictions and permitted the vast majority of non-life sustaining businesses to continue to operate. Appendix A details the different approaches that each U.S. state and Canadian province has taken in response to COVID-19. 

As disagreements continue over whether the U.S. President has the unilateral authority to compel states to lift stay-at-home orders and order businesses to reopen, several state governors have announced three major regional coalitions on how states are planning to coordinate their economic re-openings: California, Oregon, and Washington (West Coast); New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island (Northeastern); and Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky (Midwest). This comes as a number of states across Ohio, Tennessee, Idaho, and North Dakota have all declared that they would not be extending COVID-19 restrictions and intend to restart business by May 1. 


In Canada, similar restrictions have been adopted with the manufacturing hubs of Quebec and Ontario ordering non-essential businesses to close until May 4 and 6 respectively. Both provinces have introduced revised lists for what constitutes as “essential” business with certain major non-life sustaining sectors (such as mining and energy) being permitted to resume operations. 

Manufacturing Impacts in U.S. And Canada

The sector-specific analysis below provides an overview of the specific challenges faced by firms and suppliers operating in the life sciences and healthcare, automotive and mobility, engineering and manufacturing, energy and chemicals, and technology industries amid the COVID-19 pandemic.  

Life Sciences And Healthcare

The severe strains placed on American life sciences and healthcare supply chains have been underpinned by acute supply shortages and skyrocketing costs for procuring critical medical supplies and equipment needed to combat the COVID-19 outbreak. While the U.S.’ reliance on China and India for critical and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and protective garments is well-documented, higher-end medical equipment and devices remain heavily sourced from other developed nations for products such as diagnostic reagents, oxygen therapy equipment, and disinfectants (see Appendix B).  

As a response to the crisis, the Trump administration has taken several measures under the Defense Protection Act to compel companies to produce much-needed medical supplies such as ventilators, medical masks, and swabs. In addition, a temporary rule was issued prohibiting the exports of certain types of personal protective equipment (PPEs) without “explicit approval” by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. These are categorized under five categories of medical supplies: N95 filtering face piece respirators; other filtering face piece respirators; elastomeric, air-purifying respirators and appropriate particulate filters/cartridges; PPE surgical masks; and PPE gloves or surgical gloves. The measures are effective for 120 days from April 7 to August 10.  

The measures do allow for a narrow exemption for shipments by or on behalf of U.S. manufacturers with continuous export agreements with customers in other countries since at least January 1, 2020. However, the exemption only applies to U.S. manufacturers with a track record of distributing at least 80 percent of their PPE product supplies, on a per item basis, in the U.S. during the 12 months. Certain shipments of PPE may also be exempted from the new restrictions including exports to Canada and Mexico. The restrictions do not include other materials that the U.S. Department of Health has defined as “scarce or threatened materials” that could be subject to further actions if the situation continues to escalate, which may include chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, ventilators, certain sanitizing and disinfectant products, and medical gowns or apparel. 

Automotive And Mobility

The adverse impacts on the U.S. and Canadian automotive sectors are exemplified by the 93 percent shutdown faced by Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) plants across the industry in the US and at least 47 percent in Canada. Restoration to pre-COVID-19 capacity is anticipated to be a challenge, because outside of the NAFTA area, which retains logistic contingency in the form of essential classifications for cross-border trade, full-fledged resumption will be made difficult by sub-national essential production limits on OEMs and component manufacturers as well as respective supplies required for production. 

Moreover, even if quick plant production resumption takes place in the NAFTA area, any input material imports could be complicated by COVID-19 related trade restrictions. In addition, resumption of automotive production at OEMs such as Ford and GM may be challenged where production of essential items required to address the COVID-19 pandemic is mandated, such as with Ford’s production of ventilators under the Defense Production Act. As a whole, sub-tier suppliers are anticipated to face significant impact, as OEMs struggle to bring production back to pre-COVID-19 capacity. Small yet crucial suppliers may face challenges amid sales and production losses themselves, and could be at risk for insolvencies which may reverberate upward towards OEMs and trigger supply shortages overall in the industry.

Major automotive supplier clusters in the US are concentrated in the Deep South and the Great Lakes states of the Midwest, which includes the facilities of the Big Three (FCA, GM, and Ford) as well as German and Japanese OEMS, while OEM assembly plants in Canada are primarily concentrated in southern Ontario. Everstream Analytics data shows that the predominant concentration of OEMs and affiliated suppliers is in the 9-county Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area in the U.S., bordered by Windsor and the counties of Essex, Lambton and Kent in Ontario in Canada. Monitoring stay-at-home orders in these areas will be crucial to assessing when production may potentially resume for the industry.

Figure 02: Manufacturing and supplier locations for the automotive and mobility sector in Detroit and surrounding areas. Source: Everstream Analytics

ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING

North American engineering and manufacturing firms have seen a considerable decline in demand for iron, steel, and other various metals as U.S. automakers continue to announce sweeping shutdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, major steelmakers U.S. Steel, ArcelorMittal, Gerdau, AK Steel, and Vallourec have all been forced to either idle or temporarily suspend operations at their respective blast furnaces and steel mills with few providing specific timeline on when their facilities could come back online.  

Everstream Analytics data shows that the physical presence of engineering and manufacturing firms in the U.S. is primarily concentrated in the Great Lakes Midwest and the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. As is the case with other industries, carefully monitoring lifting of stay-at-home orders and definitions of essential businesses is necessary to assess when the impact on these industry clusters may abate.

Figure 03: Manufacturing and supplier locations for the engineering and manufacturing sector in Midwestern U.S. states. Source: Everstream Analytics

Half of Canada’s manufacturing output is concentrated in Ontario, where the industry saw a loss of 31,600 jobs. Quebec, the province with the second largest manufacturing presence, reported a record 1,200 manufacturing job losses as of March, although the figures will decrease as the province expands the scope of industries allowed to resume production. Ontario has seen an increase in intra-provincial sourcing, albeit mostly for the critical COVID-19 response-related industries, but also for non-essential industries. 

ENERGY AND CHEMICALS

The collapse of worldwide oil prices and limited space to store oil amid the COVID-19 pandemic has seen U.S. and Canadian energy producers caught in the crosshairs of extreme market volatility amid a pricing war between Saudi Arabia and Russia. Despite a deal reached by OPEC+ to cut global oil production by 10 percent, an overnight collapse on April 21 saw U.S. oil prices fall below zero for the first time in history, meaning producers are now paying buyers to take oil supplies off their hands due to a drastic oversupply of oil and insufficient storage capacity.

The downturn has forced a number of notable oil and gas and chemical producers to temporarily halt operations, idle refineries, or reduce overall production. Royal Dutch Shell, Chevron, PBF Energy, and Marathon Petroleum have all been forced to either idle or shut down their refineries, while ConocoPhillips was the first major U.S. shale producer to confirm that it would cut its U.S. annual output by 30 percent. U.S. petroleum producer Valero Energy and Canadian energy firm Husky Energy have also been forced to declare force majeure to their suppliers due to COVID-19. 

Moreover, the fallout from COVID-19 has triggered a number of high-profile insolvencies including Denver-based shale producer Whiting Petroleum and Texas-based shale driller Yuma Energy, which have both filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The Trump administration has initiated plans to make funds available for oil and gas companies struggling due to COVID-19 amid broader fears within the industry that bankruptcies could far exceed that of the 2014-2016 oil crash. 

As relief against record-low energy prices, New Mexico and Oklahoma state regulators allowed producers to cut output on state lands to halt losses, while Texas regulators are delaying a vote that would force producers to curtail oil production by 20 percent. Everstream Analytics data reveals that the vast majority of U.S. energy supplier and manufacturing locations are heavily concentrated in the U.S. South (particularly Texas, Oklahoma, Georgia, and Louisiana); with the sector making up 78.4 percent of locations in Houston and amid reports of looming mandated production cuts in the state, those dependent on the energy and chemicals industry are advised to monitor state-level restrictions. 

Figure 04: Manufacturing and supplier locations for the energy and chemicals sector in Houston and surrounding areas. Source: Everstream Analytics

TECHNOLOGY

In the U.S., the semiconductor industry is considered essential business under the federal CISA guidelines and has been allowed to operate during the COVID-19 crisis. However, the lack of a uniform global definition of what constitutes as “essential” has meant that the supply chain impact abroad has been significant for the industry, with each country having different lockdown impacts. The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), an industry group representing leading U.S. tech manufacturers, previously lobbied federal and state governments to allow chip production plants to be recognized as essential services, citing that chips were critical for infrastructure, healthcare and manufacturing, as well as cloud data centers.

While domestic manufacturing in the U.S. for the semiconductor industry has been less impacted than other sectors, global uncertainty in the market looms. Some leading U.S.-based chipmakers have seen their production plants shut down in Southeast Asia, while global shipments and exports from South Korea and Japan to the U.S. have declined. Should states decide to impose tougher government orders if the COVID-19 situation worsens, it could result in prolonged shutdowns for semiconductor foundries and trigger supply shortages. 

Logistics Impacts

Regardless of the exceptions made for essential goods, the uninterrupted flow of goods remains at risk due to the possibility of force majeure declarations or insolvency filings by transportation and warehousing companies. The CEVA Logistics declaration, for example, led to a legal relief of the company’s obligations on agreed-upon delivery schedules for its air, land, and sea contracts.

On the customs side, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) have instituted limited forms of customs payment relief, for general and essential goods, respectively. For example, in the U.S., the Trump administration announced on April 20 a 90-day deferral on certain duties to provide American importers suffering from financial hardship due to COVID-19 with relief. However, imports subject to duties under Section 201, 232, and the 301 Trade Remedies targeting Chinese goods will not be included in the relief effort. 

Air freight

In terms of air cargo impact, the Trans-Atlantic trade lanes between the U.S. and Europe has seen significant capacity reductions in both directions. Space is available with constraints but with no transit time guarantees. For Trans-Pacific routes, capacity is still constrained with freighter schedules from the U.S. remaining inconsistent but gradually ramping up back to normal. Capacity constraints in Asian transit hubs persist to destinations without direct flight options from North America. In addition, Trans-Pacific lanes have continued to see increased air freight rates from China to North America, with the highest prices being recorded out of Shanghai. 

In Canada, the borders remain closed to non-residents with only four Canadian airports (Calgary, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver) accepting international passenger flights. Airport terminals across the country are operating normally for cargo, although freighter capacity is constrained despite continuing to fly normally. Many airlines, including flag carrier Air Canada, have adapted their passenger fleets and compensated for a drop in passenger service to ensure supply chain continuity for domestic, Trans-Atlantic, and Trans-Pacific routes.

Ocean freight

East Asia – North America cargo was the earliest and one of routes to be hardest hit. While ocean freight is also exempt under the terms of the joint agreement on essential cross border services, the possibility of port congestion and disruption remains as crews require pre-boarding screening and ships require sanitary measures in line with IMO guidance, with on-board operations further limited by necessary operations guidance. The U.S. Coast Guard requires an immediate declaration to the Captain of the port of arrival upon discovery of symptomatic crew, as well as 15 days prior to arrival reporting requirements to the CDC. Canada has a 96-hour reporting requirement for symptomatic crew before arrival in Canadian waters.

Several terminals at major U.S. ports were forced to close or reduce operating hours due to an increase in blank sailings and slashed cargo volumes, as well as instances of port workers contracting COVID-19. At the Port of Virginia, the Portsmouth Marine Terminal will be closed from May 4 and the number of hours truck gates will be open at other terminals is set to be reduced. For the Port of Seattle, Terminal 18 – the Pacific Northwest region’s largest container terminal – has since been brought back online as of April 11 following confirmed cases of workers contracting COVID-19. 

Ground freight

After introducing border restrictions on March 21 to combat the spread of COVID-19, the U.S. and Canada announced on April 18 that the border would continue to be closed to all non-essential travel for another 30 days with the movement of cargo and freight activity between both countries being exempted. For ground freight, this includes the average daily passage of 30,000 trucks conducting USD 1 billion (CAD 1.4 billion; EUR 900 million) worth of commerce.

The ability for interstate ground shippers in the US to continue operating could be complicated, first by the ability to perform interstate shipments in the event that origin, transit, and destination jurisdictions have differing definitions of essential business. At the state level, Georgia, Michigan, Virginia, and Illinois have adopted executive orders lifting restrictions on oversized and overweight trucking load permits and licenses for transporting emergency supplies needed to combat COVID-19. 

Outlook

Some states and provinces in the two countries have seen peaks and ebbs in COVID-19 infection rates, and as a result, many manufacturers are considering their production options accordingly. Others, however, have elected to maintain their halts for additional weeks. While production may be permitted to resume based on the easing introduced at the sub-national level, COVID-19 response requirements at national levels, and the administrative means that may be employed to meet these requirements, may provide unexpected disruptions to production requirements. If the ebbing of the COVID-19 infection curb proves to be insufficient for the requirements of federal, state/provincial, and local governments as a result, the possibility of such disruptions could be ever more likely.

Recommendations

  • Monitor easing of restrictions on a state-level: As states and provinces re-evaluate their closures vis-a-vis infection trends, some have indicated a willingness to ease restrictions or do away with them altogether. If and when these do occur, supply chain managers should closely monitor how it may impact their sector and potential suppliers as both countries seek to restart production and reopen supply lanes.
  • Remain abreast of customs relief opportunities: While limited in duration and scope, efforts by CBP and CBSA to provide payment relief are a positive indicator of potential alleviations to come, which can facilitate supply chain movements down the line. Supply chain managers should therefore remain aware of developments in customs facilitation that can assist mobility restoration going forward.
  • Anticipate schedule and regulatory changes to production: Depending on both countries’ emergency response requirements, which can be performed via legislative invocation (such as the Defense Production Act (50 U.S.C. Chapter 55) or the Emergencies Act (RSC 1985, c 22 (4th Supp)) or Executive Order/Order-in-Council, producers should anticipate that manufacturing requirements may be administratively changed and should prepare accordingly.

Appendix

STATEMOVEMENT RESTRICTIONSBUSINESS RESTRICTIONSDURATION 
(DAYS)
END DATE
AlabamaStay-at-home order effective from April 4 until May 1. Stay-at-home order will be reviewed by state officials on or before April 28.Non-essential businesses ordered to close until April 30. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.27April 30
AlaskaStay-at-home order issued effective from March 28 through April 21. 

Some non-essential businesses allowed to reopen on April 24 under Phase One plan for reopening the state’s economy. 

Critical infrastructure and healthcare operations exempted. Healthcare manufacturers, medical equipment and personal protective equipment manufacturers, transport and logistics, critical manufacturing (including products needed for medical supply chains and supply chains for food and agriculture, chemicals, commodities, energy, transportation).
24April 21
ArizonaStay-at-home order in effect from March 31 until April 30.Non-essential businesses ordered to close until April 30. Healthcare operations and essential infrastructure operations exempted. Airport operations, oil and biofuel refining, ports, operation and maintenance of utilities defined under essential infrastructure.31April 30
ArkansasNeither statewide stay-at-home order nor quarantine restrictions in effect.Businesses and manufacturers required to implement social distancing protocols. Many businesses in the state have closed of their own choice.N/AN/A
CaliforniaStay-at-home order issued on March 19 with no set expiration date.Closure of non-essential businesses effective as of March 19. Manufacturers, technicians, logistics and warehouse operators, and distributors are explicitly mentioned as essential, with sectors including healthcare, food & agriculture, energy, transportation & logistics, communications & IT.40INDEFINITE
ColoradoStay-at-home order extended from March 26 until April 26. Stay-at-home order will shift to a “Safer-at-Home” phase on April 27 that will keep many of the same recommendations.Critical business includes healthcare, critical infrastructure, manufacturing, and defense, among others. Non-critical businesses may only conduct minimum basic operations for the duration of the Public Health Order.32April 26
ConnecticutStay-at-home order extended from March 23 until May 20.Executive order mandating the closure of non-essential businesses extended until May 20.33May 20
DelawareShelter-in-place order in effect from March 24 until May 15. Non-transiting visitors to Delaware must self-quarantine for 14 days.Executive order in effect until May 15 mandating the closure of non-essential businesses. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.59May 15
District of ColumbiaStay-at-home order in effect from March 30 until May 15.Non-essential businesses closed until May 15. Exemptions provided to essential infrastructure (including utilities), healthcare operations, energy and automotive, transportation and logistics.47May 15
FloridaStatewide stay-at-home order in effect from April 3 until April 30.Only essential services or activities permitted as detailed under the list provided by the federal CISA guidance.28April 30
GeorgiaState-wide shelter-in-place effective from April 3 until April 30.Non-essential businesses are limited to minimum staffing and remote work. Essential services identified as pertinence to “critical infrastructure” defined as pertaining to healthcare and food distribution.

Temporary waiver for oversized and overweight trucking load permits and licenses. The waiver only applies to loads carrying emergency materials related to COVID-19.
28April 30
HawaiiStay-at-home order in effect from March 25 until at least through April 30.

Hawaii issued zero access restrictions from the U.S. mainland and other countries effective from March 26.
Non-essential businesses are requested to limit operations to minimum operations or remote work. Essential businesses must implement staggered staffing per social distancing guidelines.37April 30
IdahoStay-at-home order extended from March 25 until April 30.Non-essential businesses are limited to minimum operations or remote work. Cities and counties reserve the right to enact more stringent ordinances. Essential businesses include oil, mining, transportation, businesses pertaining to food production, mailing & shipping, and “business that supplies essential businesses”37April 30
IllinoisStay-at-home order in effect from March 21 through May 30.Non-essential businesses are limited to minimum operations or remote work effective until May 30. Essential businesses include essential infrastructure, which has been defined to include, but not be limited to, food production, transport, energy production, distribution, railroads, and other broadly construed sectors.

Executive order relaxes truck weight restrictions for vehicles transporting essential goods for COVID-19.
71May 30
IndianaStay-at-home order in effect extended from March 24 until May 1.All non-essential businesses required to cease operations until May 1.39May 1
IowaNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued.


Some non-essential retail businesses were ordered to close from March 17 until April 30. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.45April 30
KansasStay-at-home order issued from March 30 through May 3.Non-essential businesses ordered to close. Businesses that are allowed to remain operational include those with functions related to cargo and fuel supply, food products, and defense.35May 3
KentuckyNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued. “Healthy at Home” campaign, which is phrased as an advisory rather than an executive order, remains in effect indefinitely.

Travel for Kentucky and non-Kentucky residents outside the state is restricted to essential needs and work.
All non-essential businesses ordered to close from March 23. A phased re-opening of the economy set to begin on April 27 that will ease restrictions for certain non-essential businesses including health care services.  Transportation and logistics, shipping, and agricultural operations included under definition of essential services.36INDEFINITE
LouisianaStay-at-home order issued from March 23 through April 30.Stay-at-home mandate issued for non-essential businesses. Essential service providers include healthcare, businesses that supply other essential businesses, utilities, mailing and shipping services. 

Some restrictions on businesses are set to be lifted by May 1, although no specific details have been outlined.
39April 30
Maine“Stay Healthy at Home” executive order issued from March 25 through at least April 30.Non-essential businesses are limited to minimal operations. Essential services include industrial manufacturing, biomedical, post offices and shipping outlets.37April 30
MarylandStay-at-home order in effect from March 30 extended to an indefinite date.Non-essential businesses ordered to close and defined under businesses that are not part of the critical infrastructure sectors identified under the federal CISA guidelines.29INDEFINITE
MassachusettsStatewide stay-at-home advisory effective from March 24 until May 4.All non-essential businesses ordered to close until May 4. Essential services defined under federal CISA guidelines.42May 4
MichiganStay-at-home order extended from March 24 through April 30.All businesses required to stop operations unless deemed as critical infrastructure workers. An Executive Order adopts federal CISA guidelines to define critical infrastructure. Delivery-related restrictions for vehicles carrying essential supplies to combat COVID-19 are also lifted.38April 30
MinnesotaStay-at-home order extended from March 27 through May 3.Critical sectors permitted to continue operations including healthcare, transportation and logistics, and food and agriculture.38May 3
MississippiStay-at-home order in effect from April 3 through April 27. Governor Tate Reeves confirmed that the stay-at-home order will not be extended beyond April 27.Non-essential businesses ordered to close barring some retail sales permitted so long as social distancing requirements are met. Essential services include healthcare operators, manufacturers, agricultural providers, utilities and critical infrastructure, mail and shipping services.25April 27
MissouriStay-at-home order extended from April 6 until May 3. Governor Mike Pearson confirms the stay-at-home order will not be extended beyond May 3 and pledged that on May 4 “people are going back to work.” St. Louis extending stay-at-home order indefinitely. Kansas City extending order until May 15.Non-essential businesses ordered to close. 42 categories of businesses categorized under “essential business” including healthcare and food-related services.

28May 3
MontanaStay-at-home order extended from March 28 through April 26.Phase One for re-opening the state economy planned for April 27, which will allow certain non-essential businesses to resume under certain conditions.  Essential services include healthcare, agriculture, mailing and shipping services, and transportation providers. The executive order incorporates the federal CISA guidance to further define essential businesses.30April 26
NebraskaNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued.No official statewide directive issued for businesses. Additional non-essential businesses and services closed.N/AN/A
NevadaStay-at-home order issued from April 1 until April 30.Non-essential businesses ordered to close. Governor Steve Sisolak announced plans on April 21 for a Phase One plan to allow certain non-essential businesses to resume operations. Essential services include healthcare services, biomedical facilities, post offices and shipping outlets, logistics and supply chain operations.30April 30
New HampshireStay-at-home order from April 10 until May 4.Non-essential businesses ordered to close. Essential services include food and agriculture, law enforcement, essential infrastructure, healthcare operations, essential infrastructure (electric, petroleum, natural gas, waste and wastewater, and steam), transportation, and logistics.25May 4
New JerseyOfficial statewide stay-at-home order issued from March 21 with no specific expiration date.Non-essential businesses must close bricks-and-mortar premises under Executive Order.35INDEFINITE
New MexicoStay-at-home order extended from March 24 until April 30.Non-essential businesses ordered to suspend all in-person operations.38April 30
New YorkStatewide stay-at-home order extended from March 22 to May 15.Non-essential businesses ordered to remain closed until May 15. Certain low-risk construction and manufacturing activities could begin in some regions stay-at-home order expires on May 15.

Essential services identified under twelve categories as detailed under Executive Order 202.6 including essential healthcare operations, manufacturing, logistics and technology support. Any entity that possesses personal protective equipment (PPEs), ventilators, respirators, bi-pap, anesthesia, or other necessary equipment or supplies as determined by the Commissioner of Health must inventory such supplies and report it to the Department of Health.
55May 15
North CarolinaStay-at-home order effective from March 30 through May 8.Non-essential businesses ordered to close until May 8. Essential businesses include healthcare and public health operations; essential infrastructure; mail, post, shipping, logistics, delivery, and pick-up services; suppliers for COVID-19 essential businesses and operations; and manufacturing, distribution, and supply chains for critical products and industries.31May 8
North DakotaNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued. State of emergency declared on March 15 and set to be lifted on May 1.Non-essential businesses ordered to close through April 30. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.

Executive order signed to temporarily lift weight restrictions on North Dakota’s highways to ensure critical sources arrive in a timely manner amid COVID-19.
47April 30
OhioShelter-in-place order in place extended from March 23 until May 1.Non-essential businesses and operations must cease all activities until May 1. Essential businesses include logistics (mail, post, and shipping, delivery, and pick-up services); transportation; supplies for essential businesses; manufacturing, distribution and supply chain for critical products and industries.39May 1
OklahomaStay-at-home order issued from March 25 to May 6 particularly targeting vulnerable populations.

Travelers entering Oklahoma from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, California, Louisiana, and Washington state are required to self-quarantine for 14 days.
Executive order expanded to all 77 counties mandating non-essential businesses suspend services until May 6. Essential industries include chemical (petroleum and coal manufacturing), energy (mining, oil and gas extraction), transportation and distribution, and postal services.43May 6
OregonStay-at-home order remains in effect until ended by the governor.Certain retail businesses were ordered to close. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.33INDEFINITE
PennsylvaniaStay-at-home order in effect from March 23 until May 8.All non-life sustaining businesses ordered to cease operations. Industries permitted to continue physical operations include: agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting; manufacturing (semiconductors, chemicals, petroleum and coal, plastics, iron and steel); mining, oil and gas; transportation and warehousing (air transportation, rail transportation, postal service); and utilities.47May 8
Rhode IslandStay-at-home order extended from March 28 until May 8. Anyone who returns to Rhode Island after domestic airplane travel must immediately self-quarantine for 14 days.All non-critical retail businesses are ordered to cease operations.42May 8
South CarolinaState of Emergency executive order extended through from April 7 to at least April 27. All South Carolina residents ordered to limit movement outside their home or workplace except for essential activities.Non-essential businesses limited to minimum operations. Essential businesses and critical infrastructure operations include commercial vehicles transporting essential goods (such as food, medicine, medical supplies and equipment) and individuals engaged in commercial transportation activities.21April 27
South DakotaNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued.No statewide directive ordering businesses to cease operations, only to implement social distancing guidelines.N/AN/A
TennesseeStay-at-home order extended from March 31 until April 30. Governor Bill Lee confirmed that the order will not be extended further after April 30.Non-essential businesses limited to minimum operations. Essential services include healthcare and public health; mail, post, shipping, logistics, delivery, and pick-up services; essential infrastructure operations; manufacturing, distribution, and supply chains for critical products and industries.

The vast majority of businesses in 89 counties in the state will be allowed to reopen on May 1.
31April 30
TexasStay-at-home order issued from April 2 through April 30. Air travelers flying to Texas from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, California, Louisiana, Washington states as well as Atlanta, Chicago, Detroit and Miami must self-quarantine for 14 days.No official statewide order mandating non-essential businesses close. Cities, counties, and school districts have largely been allowed to adopt proprietary approaches to contain COVID-19.29April 30
UtahNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued.No official order mandating non-essential businesses close. Businesses must minimize face-to-face contact with high risk employees. High risk individuals (older residents and those with serious underlying medical conditions) may leave only for essential needs and work.N/AN/A
Vermont“Stay Home, Stay Safe” order extended from March 25 until May 15.Non-essential businesses limited to minimum operations. On April 20, Vermont’s Phase One plan for re-opening the economy allowed certain non-essential businesses to resume operations for curbside pickup and delivery.52May 15
VirginiaStay-at-home order effective from March 23 until June 10.All non-essential businesses ordered to close. Essential retail businesses permitted to remain open include automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers; medical, laboratory, and vision supply retailers.

Temporary waiver granted for oversized/overweight trucking load permits and licenses, which applies only to loads carrying emergency materials directly connected to COVID-19.
80June 10
WashingtonStay-at home order extended from March 23 until May 4. All non-essential businesses ordered to be closed. Essential business and services include healthcare and public health, food and agriculture, energy (electricity, petroleum, natural gas, and propane workers), transportation and logistics, and chemicals.43May 4
West VirginiaStay-at-home order in effect from March 24 until terminated by a subsequent executive order.Non-essential businesses are limited to minimum operations. Essential business and operations defined under federal CISA guidance.32INDEFINITE
WisconsinStay-at-home order extended from March 25 until May 26.All non-essential businesses and operations required to cease except for Minimum Basic operations. Essential business and operations defined under federal CISA guidance.62May 26
WyomingNo official statewide stay-at-home order issued.All non-essential businesses ordered to be closed from March 25 until April 30. No manufacturing-intensive industries impacted.37April 30
Appendix A: COVID-19 Restrictions at State And Provincial Levels in The U.S. (as of April 27 00:00 GMT)
PROVINCERESTRICTIONSDURATION (DAYS)END DATE
AlbertaNon-essential businesses closed from March 27. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal, industrial and manufacturing, health and medical services permitted as essential services.29Indefinite
British ColumbiaNon-essential businesses closed from March 18. Health (services), critical infrastructure services providers, transportation, and manufacturing permitted as essential services. Non-essential services permitted to open in compliance with Public Health Officer recommendations, and re-closure is at the discretion of the Provincial Health Officer.54Mid-May
ManitobaNon-essential businesses closed until April 28, extended from the previous April 14. Supply chain, ICT, transportation, manufacturing, agriculture, construction, energy, and health (services) are permitted to operate.28April 28
New BrunswickNon-essential businesses closed from March 25. Supply chain, manufacturing, food processing, energy are permitted to operate30Indefinite
Newfoundland and LabradorNon-essential businesses closed from March 23. All non-retail enterprises may remain open provided social distancing is observed33Indefinite
Northwest TerritoriesNo major restrictions, with most pertinent order issued on March 18. Mines and hydrocarbon camps required to adhere to social distancing.38Indefinite
Nova ScotiaNo major restrictions, with most pertinent order issued on March 22. Non-essential businesses can remain open provided social distancing is observed34Indefinite
NunavutNo major restrictions. No cases reported as of April 24 in Nunavut, yet self-isolation measures underway since March 1542Indefinite
OntarioLockdown measures extended until at least May 6. Non-essential businesses closed. Supply chain enterprises, health (services) manufacturing, agriculture, construction, and energy are permitted to continue.45May 6
Prince Edward IslandNon-essential businesses closed indefinitely as of March 18. Health (services), construction, supply chain (includes manufacturing and agriculture) are permitted to continue.38Indefinite
QuebecLockdown measures extended until May 4. Non-essential businesses closed. Strategic infrastructure, priority manufacturing and commercial enterprises, construction, and priority transportation and logistics remain in operation.42May 4
SaskatchewanNon-essential businesses closed as of March 26. Health (services), mining, forestry, energy, agriculture, manufacturing, supply chain, transportation, logistics, ICT are permitted to continue.30Indefinite
YukonNon-essential businesses closed as of April 2. Health (services), food production, ICT, energy, transportation, manufacturing, construction are permitted to continue23Indefinite
Appendix B: COVID-19 Restrictions at State And Provincial Levels in The Canada (as of April 27 00:00 GMT)
PRODUCTSECTIONHS CODE CLASSIFICATIONLEADING EXPORTERS TO U.S. 
(BY PERCENTAGE, VALUE IMPORTED IN 2019)
Disinfectants (e.g., hand sanitizer, hydrogen peroxide, other chemical disinfectants)Disinfectants and sterilization products3808.94Canada (60.8), China (10.8), Mexico (8.5)
Swab and viral transport medium setDiagnostic testing3821.00Italy (18.1), United Kingdom (16.1), France (12.2)
Diagnostic reagents based on polymerase chain reaction nucleic testDiagnostic testing3822.00United Kingdom (16.1), Singapore (14.4), Germany (12.3), Canada (11.6)
Plastic glovesProtective garments3926.20China (78.1), Canada (12)
Surgical rubber glovesProtective garments4015.11Malaysia (47.4), Thailand (45.7)
Cellulose or paper masksProtective garments4818.50China (49.9), Indonesia (32.7)
Textile face masks without a replaceable filter or mechanical partsProtective garments6307.90China (72.4), Mexico (10.8), Canada (2.2)
Infusion pumpsOther medical devices and equipment8413.19Mexico (28.9), Poland (16.3), Czech Republic (8.9)
Oxygen therapy equipment (e.g., medical ventilators)Oxygen therapy9019.20Singapore (34.4), China (17.4), Mexico (13.6)
Gas masks with mechanical parts or replaceable filters for protection against biological agentsProtective garments9020.00France (22.9), United Kingdom (21.5), Canada (10.5), Germany (10.4)
Computed tomography (CT) scannersOther medical devices and equipment9022.12Germany (49.8), Japan (15.8), Israel (14.5)
Appendix B: U.S. Import Volumes of Selected COVID-19 Medical Supplies. Source: ITC Trade Map. World Customs Organization and World Health Organization, HS classification reference for COVID-19 medical supplies (Second Edition).

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